By BizLED Bureau
September 30, 2015: The term ?OLED?, also known as organic light emitting diodes, is becoming popular. An offshoot of LED technology, OLED uses a series of light emitting thin films that enable the OLED to give out brighter light than LEDs, yet they use lesser energy. As the films that emit light are made up of hydrocarbons (organic semiconductors) and not semiconductors, they are called “organic”, and hence the ?O? before LED.
Layers of OLED
OLEDs are made up of four layers?anode that attracts electrons; cathode that gives electrons; substrate that forms the framework; and the organic layer is in between. This organic layer is again divided into a layer that has electron holes, giving out energy, with a layer where light is produced.
What are OLEDS for?
OLEDs are used for digital displays in devices like TV, computer or cellphone. There are two key types of OLEDs?one made up of small molecules and the other made up of polymers. OLED displays use passive matrix (PMOLED) or active matrix (AMOLED). AMOLED operates with a backplane of thin-film transistor to switch each pixel on or off. However, they give higher resolution and the display sizes are much bigger. While LEDs work with a backlight, OLED displays work without any backlight. As a result, they can display even deep black colours, yet they are thinner than LCD.
What makes OLED stand out?
Unlike LED technology, OLEDs work as a source of light as well as colour array. It offers the following benefits: An OLED display does not require any electronics or a circuitry to drive the LED backlight. As a result, OLEDs are considered more efficient than LEDs because they consume less power. An LED display does not shut off black completely, but OLED turns off the pixel completely to produce black colour. As a result, it saves energy.
An OLED display has its own filters for colours, hence they can produce black colour. It also has higher contrast ratios. OLEDs also have wide viewing angle, about 90 degrees from centre, but it does not lose any colour or clarity.
Since OLED displays do not have shutter arrays and back light, it has stronger yet lighter plastic substrates. These plastic and organic layers are thinner, lighter and flexible. Hence, OLEDs are lighter and durable.
As the layers of an OLED is thinner than the inorganic layers of an LED, OLED can be multi-layered. Also, while LEDs require glass for support, OLEDs do not require glass.
Not without limitations
However, OLED technology has some limitations. It is said that the material used for producing blue light deteriorates faster, which finally disbalances colours and reduces brightness. As a result, manufacturers usually double the size of the blue sub-pixel than the red and green.
Also, the blue organics have shorter lifetime?only about 14,000 hours. Currently, they are expensive, and can be easily damaged by water. However, a lot of research is being done currently to overcome these limitations.
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